The Township of Crowland was bordered by Humberstone Township to the south, Willoughby Township to the east and the Welland River on the west, north west and north which separated the township from the townships of Thorold and Stamford.
Small ships could enter the Welland River from the Niagara River and gain passage all the way to the community of Welland in the south eastern part of the township.
Settlers arrived in Crowland township in 1788, however the first road in the township was not surveyed until 1801. In 1803 a census revealed there were two hundred and sixteen persons living within the township. In 1817 the population of the township was about 600 inhabitants and by the year 1848 the population had doubled to 1,200.
Lyon's Creek, which flowed through the township in a north easterly direction passed through the settlement of Cooks Mills, situated roughly in the centre of the township. Cooks Mills was a bustling community at the turn of the 19th century. There were several taverns located there as well as a saw mill, a post office and several retail establishments.
In 1885 there were 800 horses, 1,200 sheep and 1,300 horned cattle within Crowland Township.