The Geography of Niagara
Nowhere else in Ontario is the geography more diverse than in Niagara. The melting glaciers 14,000 years ago would alter the landscape creating rivers, lakes and waterfalls.
The Niagara Region is actually made up of two plains, separated by the Niagara Escarpment. The first, the Ontario Plain is the area situtated below the escarpment. This area was once part of ancient Lake Iroquois and the sandy loam soil is quite fertile.
The warmer weather on the Ontario Plain is due to the moderating effects of Lake Ontario and it's close proximity to the Niagara Escarpment.
A 60 meter climb over the escarpment brings us to the Erie Plain. Here the soil is clay and poorly drained. The region's highest elevation at Fonthill, is due to the enormous glacial sand deposits that make up the Fonthill Kame.
Farther south the bedrock is more visible, the rocky shoals eventually blending into Lake Erie.